Dipendra Kandel Initiative
  • Technocratic Diplomacy

    The globalized reality we live in requires us to engage in active learning and adapting to change. Therefore, all our work is conducted with an international mindset and a technocratic approach. 

    In the long run, we wish to increase international cooperation and technocratic practices across the public and private sector.

Research & Development and Innovation

R&D and Innovation is defined as the activities that companies undertake to innovate and introduce new products and services. R&D and Innovation are a proven major driver of economic growth, employment, and competitiveness, which, in turn, contribute to development and industrialization.


The Dipendra Kandel Initiative undertakes R&D and Innovation research as to draft government policy recommendation aimed to enhance the conditions and environment which will lead to innovation in countries.


Research, Development, and Innovation research focuses on: Entrepreneurship, sectorial diversification and modernisation, scientific and human resources attraction, technology & Know-how, research, technology development, and innovation investment, knowledge and information rights…


Research Parameters
Research Parameters

Research and Development        

Research and Development Inputs

GERD (% of GDP)

GERD per researcher (constant '000 PPP$)

Researchers per thousand labor force (HC)

Graduates from STEM programmes, tertiary (%)

High-technology net imports (% of total trade)


Research and Development Outputs

Average documents per researcher 

Citations per document

Citable documents  H index

Best scientific journal (SJR ranking)

Quality of research institutions

Patent applications (per million inhabitants)


Social Innovation

Inputs of Social Innovation

Ease of protecting minority investors

Joint venture per strategic alliance deals

ICT goods imported (% of total imports)

Total computer software spending (% of GDP)

New business density


Outputs of Social Innovation

Trademark applications (per billion PPP$ GDP)

National feature films produced (per million inhabitants)

Printing and publishing manufactures (% of manufactured output)

ICT goods exporter (% of total exports)


Innovation In Production

Inputs of Innovation in Production

GERD performed by business enterprises (% of GDP)

GERD financed by business enterprises (%)

Researchers (HC) in business enterprise (%)

FDI and technology transfer


Outputs of Innovation in Production

Intellectual property receipts (% of total trade)

Industrial design applications (per billion PPP$ GDP)

Production process sophistication

Extent of marketing