Dipendra Kandel Initiative

Ongoing Research Projects

COVID-19 CONTROL POLICY, A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHINA AND NEPAL (Z. Yu / Lithuania)

The current research conducted in gathering information of COVID-19 control policies in China and Nepal is mainly focusing on the lockdown restrictions following a timeline since the first outbreak in 2020 in both countries, central government policies and local policy implementations, and most importantly the border control, which has been a critical control point concerning the Chinese governmental policies.


The significance of border control policy can also be seen through the second wave of the disastrous outbreak in Nepal starting from June 2022, which was primarily affected by the worsening COVID-19 situation in India. A potential direction of further research is expected to be done by making a comparison of border control policies in COVID-19 control policies. Remarkably, several board cities in China have witnessed much more strict control than the rest of the country, cities such as Heilongjiang, a city located at the Chinese Russian border, as well as Ruili, a board city between China and Myanmar, raised many issues concerning freedom of mobility and economic losses of local citizens under strict boarder control aiming at preventing imported COVID-19 cases.

It’s worth noting that the harsh and practical measures taken by the Chinese government control play positive roles in controlling the overall COVID-19 situations while at the same time the minority’s rights of citizens in board cities should be paid attention to. Comparatively, the border control policy in Nepal reveals the consequences of the massive spreading of the virus under a loose control based on historical and geopolitical reasons at its board with India. The effectiveness and costs will be further discussed in two different border control approaches and public health scenarios.

Researcher: Z. Yu / Lithuania

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 30 Jun '21 - 4 Jan '22

COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN INDIA AND NEPAL'S CITIZENSHIP LAWS (S. Dalvi / India)

This research takes on a multicultural perspective to a comparative analysis of India's and Nepal's similarities and differences on citizenship laws. These two countries share a number of commonalities. - 

  • Both countries are democracies with comparable government structures. - 
  • Both of these countries' legal systems are founded on the common law system. - 
  • Because of the diversity of their population groups, both countries have experienced legal challenges regarding citizenship. Asian diversity is linked to democracy, and a democratic state is required to ensure that all residents are treated equally. 

Hence, the research compares the legal discourse of both countries to see if it adequately supports Kymlicka's idea of "multiculturalism" as envisioned in his theories and also provides some suggestions for the citizenship laws for Nepal.

Researcher: S. Dalvi / India

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 05 July '21 - 4 Jan '22

SECURITY POLICY OF NEPAL ON TERRITORIAL DISPUTES WITH INDIA (J. Ohare / USA)

I am looking into radical Islam spilling over into South Asia from the fall of Afghanistan, and the potential security risk it poses to Nepal, and how the country could become a safe haven for terrorist organizations. Nepal last terror attack was on December 31st, 2019, to telecommunications infrastructure. No one was harmed or injured in the attack. There is a group under the radar to some intelligence agencies, called Islami Sangh Nepal (ISN). They are under the assumption that they provide safety to Indian terrorists. The group is said to have ties to a Turkish NGO called IHH. They have recently helped 350 families that were affected by the floods in Nepal, but have ties to Al Qaeda and the Muslim Brotherhood. 

Back in 2016 the Russian ambassador to the UN informed the United Nations Security Council, that the NGO was supplying weapons to extremist groups in Syria. Afghans maybe smuggled into South Asian countries and have the potential to become radicalized, or individuals may try and influence citizens in South Asia to become radicalized, and carry out attacks. Cells may come into Nepal keeping a low profile but cross borders to carry out attacks or call in attacks with the country. I will analyze this further and see how to prevent this from happening, and the likelihood of this coming to light. 

Researcher:J. Ohare / USA

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 05 July '21 - 4 Jan '22

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OF KENYA AND NEPAL (F. Cavazzuti / Italy)

Investment in education is at the core of every government strategy, as it represents an essential component in fostering the socioeconomic growth of a country. Indeed, it is fundamental to strengthen the current educational system and ensure that all children of school age have access to primary and secondary education, as well as to invest in resources to increase enrollment and attendance at university. Both Nepal and Kenya, despite being distant in geographical, cultural, and linguistic terms, have committed themselves to achieving such significant goals. 


This research intends to outline a comparison between the education systems of the two countries in order to identify the similarities and, ultimately, the potential areas of cooperation in this field. While compiling this study, particular attention will be given to the strategies and policies implemented by the Kenyan and Nepalese governments to improve their national education systems; this will allow an assessment of whether the two countries are on track to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. 


The research process will be primarily supported by the consultation of national education plans, which describe in detail the challenges that Nepal and Kenya have to face and the strategies that need to be implemented in order to ensure positive development and favorable results. Furthermore, the existing literature on the two countries’ education systems will be considered as a valuable source of data and analysis. 

Ultimately, this study could serve as a framework for future research on the effectiveness and benefits of educational cooperation as a vehicle for cultural diplomacy. Indeed, future analyses might focus on the comparison between Nepal and Kenya’s strategies in the educational field to evaluate the possibility of exchanging best practices and implementing them within their respective territories, taking into account similarities and differences that might favor or hamper their effective implementation. 

Researcher: F. Cavazzuti / Italy

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 01 Nov '21 - 31 Jan '22

EDUCATIONAL POLICY IN NEPAL (P. K. E. Eastwood / Spain)

At the moment of establishing education policies, a plethora of possibilities arise, which can be seen as opportunities if properly reflected upon. They can be seen as specific courses of action which can -if adequately organised- provide guidelines for decision-makers on how to handle issues regarding Education Policy. Moreover, with a competent plan or organization involved, effective education procedures can help to eliminate misunderstandings that may arise between the day-to-day operations of an education system, and the country’s vision of education.


Educational opportunities have been organised in an uneven manner regarding genders, income groups, geographies, and other inequalities all throughout history.

Thus, the present study deals with how the unevenly developed South Asian nation of Nepal has been handling the complex structural challenges of delivering quality education to its population of 29.14 million people for myriads of years. The major concern of the study is how these inequalities have further increased due to COVID-19, what is happening now? 

Researcher: P. K. E. Eastwood / Spain

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 01 June '21 - 11 Dec '21

THE HUMANITARIAN POLICY OF NEPAL IN DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT (D. V. Aranda / Spain)

This research project on the Humanitarian Policy of Nepal in the matter of Disaster Risk Reduction and Management has been developed with the aim to analyze the current situation of this policy in the country and the impacts that it has in the political, economic and social sphere of the country. Furthermore, throughout the different sections, recommendations are provided as to improve the implementation of these policies. 


The project starts with an overall background of Nepal and is then followed by the study and analysis of policies and acts on Natural Disaster Management at Federal, Provincial and Local government level. In this sense, it has also been analyzed the National Risk Plan and Action Strategy 2017-2030 as to observe the downsides on its implementation and consequently provide recommendations and suggestions to foster the effectiveness of such an important strategy for the matter of DRR and DRM. 


As to adapt an economic perspective as well and see how the financing of DRM is being carried out, the public and private sector financing at national level have been studied as well as the funding received from international organizations. 


In addition, as DRR and DRM are not just the competence of the Government Organisms and Institutions but also the one of Non-governmental Organizations, there is a section providing an explanation of the main National and International Organizations involved in Disaster Management in Nepal. In this sense, the main actions of organizations such as Nepal Red Cross Society or the United Nations have been described and the key learnings have been extracted to help the country and its government in their way to strengthen their capacities and policies in DRR and DRM. 


Social impacts emerging from the current implementation and management of DRR and DRM policies and plans of action, such as poverty and food insecurity, are also analyzed. 

The project is concluded by providing an overview recognizing the progress in DRR and DRM in Nepal while also providing general recommendations if the required further improvement is to be achieved. 

Researcher: D. V. Aranda / Spain

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 01 June '21 - 11 Dec '21

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CITIZENSHIP LEGISLATION IN POLAND AND NEPAL - CITIZENSHIP LAW ANALYSYS (Z. Samson / Poland)

Citizenship is the most important bond connecting an individual with a state. It is a crucial legal guarantor of access to various public institutions as well as the basic human rights of an individual. This paper examines the citizenship laws in Poland and Nepal, providing a comparison of the two systems and laws implemented in the late 1990s and early 2000s respectively in each country. It reveals their considerably strict and demanding scope – a person applying for citizenship in both countries has to present close ties with their societies and culture. There are also numerous obstacles in accessing citizenship, relating to ethnic or gender issues and the broader problem of statelessness. 


Therefore, the particular focus of this paper is put on the limitations in accessing citizenship in both countries. Not having citizenship poses numerous problems, including the lack of access to public institutions, like schools or hospitals, social exclusion, and the risk of statelessness. Without citizenship, people are unable to enjoy their fundamental human rights. 


In the case of Poland, improvements could be adopted by implementing the provisions of international conventions relating to statelessness in the national legislation. Persisting xenophobic attitudes within the society may also contribute to voting for conservative, anti-immigrant political parties, which impedes foreigners from legally inhabiting the country. 


In the case of Nepal, implementing provisions of international conventions guaranteeing gender equality could help improve the situation, just as stronger protection of ethnic or racial minorities could at least limit the scale of the problem of statelessness in Nepal. Addressing the patriarchal structure of the society could, however, be fundamental for both issues. 

It is believed that a thorough analysis of the two legislations presented in this paper might be motivating for reforms and improvements so that citizenship laws in these countries become more inclusive and fair.

Researcher: Z. Samson / Poland

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 05 Aug '21 - 04 Dec '21

STUCK BETWEEN GIANTS: COMPARING THE GRAND STRATEGIES OF NEPAL LAND BHUTAN (G. W. Turner / USA)

Nepal and Bhutan are both small Himalayan nations stuck between two nuclear giants that are actively competing against each other, namely India and China. While Nepal and Bhutan have many differences culturally and politically, they also have much overlap. By examining how each defines and balances their national interests while also navigating their existence on a fault line of great power competition, this paper hopes to identify and elucidate these two nations' grand strategies. In doing so, it is hoped that a.) Lessons are uncovered which both Nepal and Bhutan may benefit from, b.) Lessons are uncovered which other nations under similar geopolitical constraints may learn from, and c.) That the global community may better understand the situation Nepal and Bhutan face, and what policy implications may exist as a result of their positions and strategies.  

 

The first part of paper will outline the geopolitical contexts of Nepal and Bhutan, with a particular focus on their relationships with each other, India, China, Russia, more distant powers such as the U.K. and Japan, and transnational organizations such the Asian Development Bank. The second part will define grand strategy and then outline and contrast what Nepal and Bhutan’s grand strategies are. The third part of the paper will examine what, if any, lessons Nepal or Bhutan may learn from each other regarding their grand strategies and relationships with China and India. 

The fourth part of the paper will seek to identify lessons that other nations locked between large powers may learn from Nepal and Bhutan. The final part of the paper will state any policy implications or recommendations that may be uncovered, and summarize likely geopolitical trends that may result from the two nations’ strategies and positions. 

Researcher: G. W. Turner M.A / USA

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 02 Aug '21 - 01 Feb '22

POLICY RECCOMENDATIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE PUBLIC ROAD TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN KATHMANDU VALLEY, NEPAL (V. Shorava / Italy)

Nepal is experiencing accelerated economic growth for which transport development is a must. In Kathmandu Valley, which is central to all economic activities in Nepal, the public bus service is unregulated, concentrated in the metropolitan area and operated by mostly private providers. Because of limited road spaces in the Valley and the growth of private vehicles, urban mobility is worsening day by day. Above it, the region experiences deteriorating air quality and people suffer from consequent health issues. 


With an objective to provide a valuable contribution to the policymakers, this paper, first, identifies the urgent need for an intervention in the transportation system; second, discusses the main characteristics of the public road transport system in Kathmandu Valley, recognizing its main challenge - inaccessibility; and finally, suggests three important strategies that would drive the road transport system in Kathmandu Valley towards a sustainable path: rural routes franchising, urban areas tendering, and para transit. 


Rural routes franchising has a potential to reduce reliance on private vehicles and ensure quality of public service by connecting the rural areas of the Valley to the centre of the economic activity. Urban areas tendering can complement the first measure by bringing forward a network of reliable public road transport system by imposing competition on the operators. Paratransit can fill the gaps in formal transit provision while safeguarding employment during the process of adjustment. Together the three measures would decrease passengers’ dependency on private vehicles and reduce congestion and air pollution. 


The integrated system regulated by government would ensure equal access to the economic activities to all citizens, opening up prospects for inclusive development. This paper also suggests an area for future research – assessing the capability of the government of Nepal to implement the measures and evaluating the positive and negative impacts these measures can induce.

Researcher: V. Sherova / Italy

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Review

Grant Period: 19 May '21 - 18 Dec '21

UNDERSTANDING THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT HUMAN RIGHTS, POLICIES, AND SDGs IN NEPAL

The climate crisis is upon us. The research provides an understanding of the complex nexus between environmental human rights, policies, and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Nepal. Environmental human rights are rights that fall under the fraternite school of thought. It is a “third-generation” human right that is only contained in non-binding documents due to its interdisciplinary nature and too often not directly referred to in policy interventions. 


These rights include, but are not limited to, a right to a favorable environment, a right to natural resources, and a right to economic and social development. Two-thirds of Nepalis are employed in agriculture. The agriculture system in Nepal is majority rain-fed. The environmental consequences of compound climatic events is and will continue to have drastic effects on poverty, food security, and the livelihoods of Nepalese people. 

These consequences need to be addressed by researching implementable ground-level policy interventions. Environmental (in)justice and environmental racism are largely debated concepts that aid the understanding of environmental human rights for the majority and the minority living in Nepal. Environmental (in)justice aligns social justice with environmental issues. Environmental racism is exposing racial discrimination in the priorities and implementation of environmental policy. 

This policy research successfully links policy intervention, SDGs, and the complexities of environmental human rights together. Figure 1 shows the interdisciplinary nature of the complex links between Environmental Human Rights, Human Rights, Policy Intervention, SDGs, Climate Change, Inequality, and Migration. These circles are a representation of the core ideas that will  be discussed throughout this policy research. 

Researcher: M. Lederle / South Africa

Type of Research: V.P. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: Suspended

Grant Period: 05 Sep '21 - 04 Jan '22

COMPARISON BETWEEN CITIZENSHIP LAW OF BRAZIL AND NEPAL

Citizenship is a key feature of the international state system. Between laws on citizenship and electoral rights, member states determine who belongs to the people in whose name they govern and for whom they assume responsibility vis-à-vis other states. Different constitutions can be discriminatory on citizenship provisions that contradict with each other and restricts mother’s right to confer citizenship to their children independently. Uninterrupted efforts must be made in order to revise the discriminatory constitutional provisions and in parallel the positive aspects of the constitution must be incorporated in the current citizenship acts around the world so that such contradictory provisions do not jeopardize its progressive attempt and also provides with an excellent opportunity to analyze the inconsistencies if any in the different citizenship provisions.


Furthermore, also to remind about the international human rights obligations of Nepal and Brazil mainly in relation to the ratification of international treaties such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR – 1948) , the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW – 1979) , the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR – 1966), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC - 1989), the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD – 1965) along with the decisions of the Supreme Court. It is also time to learn from the best practices of other countries on this very issue. 

This research aims to compare the different means of acquiring a citizenship (jus solis or jus sanguini for example) as well as a right, by descent focusing on who have acquired the citizenship before the commencement of the Constitution in both countries, by birth, by naturalization, by marriage or by special ways such as honorary or gender identity for example.

Researcher: I. Prado / Brazil

Type of Research: V.P. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 01 Sep '21 - 28 Feb '22

EMPOWERING THE NEPALESE YOUTHS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

The research provided aims to help the Nepali youth to find and apply for high quality courses in science and engineering. On the longer term, the competences they will acquire overseas will help them to change Nepal in a better way. The lack of educational means in the country makes it unable to undertake its transformation and to evolve as a nation. Finding better education abroad thus makes even more sense. The given information to give some keys for that. Students will be able to find detailed data about studies in countries such as France, Germany, India, South Africa and so many others. There will be an emphasis on schools and colleges renowned nationally and internationally for the quality of their courses (Bachelors, Masters…). 

The work includes general information on the countries of study. Potential applicants will be able to find out how to apply for a visa in the chosen country, what kind of housing they can get and at which price. Data on security, additional costs and scholarships  among others will also be made available to them. A list of the best schools universities in science and engineering for every country mentioned will also be made available. It will include rankings, a list of courses or a link leading to it (including courses taught in English in non-Anglo-Saxon countries), how to apply, tuition fees as well as general statistics and general information on the school/university. 

With the motivation of developing their country, the given data will give Nepali students keys and stronger incentives to go study abroad. It does not seek to replace any state or public organ for college and/or visa applications, its sole purpose being to empower the Nepali youth.

Researcher: A. Malarre / France

Type of Research: V.P. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 01 Sep '21 - 28 Feb '22

IMPLEMENTATION OF NEPAL'S TRANSPORTATION NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTION (NDCs)

The paper titled “Implementation of Nepal’s Transportation Target in its Second Nationally Determined Contribution” will assess the feasibility of Nepal fulfilling its vehicular electrification target. The report begins with a comprehensive analysis of Nepal’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions profile, including the sectors contributing the most significant sum of emissions. 


The following section briefly discusses the existing policies and legislative frameworks Nepal has ratified to reduce its GHG emissions, including domestic and international policies. Later, the paper will present and analyze the political, economic, social, and infrastructural barriers to policy implementation. 

This analysis will culminate with a judgment on whether Nepal can successfully achieve its transportation target. This section of the paper will contain recommendations and future actions for the Government of Nepal. The solutions to be presented are dependent on the result of the analysis and whether Nepal will be able to fulfill its target. 

Researcher: E. Stutzman / USA

Type of Research: V.P. Internship

Research Advisor: D. Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 09 Sep '21 - 08 March '22