Dipendra Kandel Initiative
  • Technocratic Diplomacy

    The globalized reality we live in requires us to engage in active learning and adapting to change. Therefore, all our work is conducted with an international mindset and a technocratic approach. 

    In the long run, we wish to increase international cooperation and technocratic practices across the public and private sector.

Ongoing Research Projects

COVID-19 CONTROL POLICY, A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHINA AND NEPAL (Z. Yu / Lithuania)

The current research conducted in gathering information of COVID-19 control policies in China and Nepal is mainly focusing on the lockdown restrictions following a timeline since the first outbreak in 2020 in both countries, central government policies and local policy implementations, and most importantly the border control, which has been a critical control point concerning the Chinese governmental policies.


The significance of border control policy can also be seen through the second wave of the disastrous outbreak in Nepal starting from June 2022, which was primarily affected by the worsening COVID-19 situation in India. A potential direction of further research is expected to be done by making a comparison of border control policies in COVID-19 control policies. Remarkably, several board cities in China have witnessed much more strict control than the rest of the country, cities such as Heilongjiang, a city located at the Chinese Russian border, as well as Ruili, a board city between China and Myanmar, raised many issues concerning freedom of mobility and economic losses of local citizens under strict boarder control aiming at preventing imported COVID-19 cases.

It’s worth noting that the harsh and practical measures taken by the Chinese government control play positive roles in controlling the overall COVID-19 situations while at the same time the minority’s rights of citizens in board cities should be paid attention to. Comparatively, the border control policy in Nepal reveals the consequences of the massive spreading of the virus under a loose control based on historical and geopolitical reasons at its board with India. The effectiveness and costs will be further discussed in two different border control approaches and public health scenarios.

Researcher: Z. Yu / Lithuania

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 30 Jun '21 - 4 Jan '22

COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN INDIA AND NEPAL'S CITIZENSHIP LAWS (S. Dalvi / India)

This research takes on a multicultural perspective to a comparative analysis of India's and Nepal's similarities and differences on citizenship laws. These two countries share a number of commonalities. - 

  • Both countries are democracies with comparable government structures. - 
  • Both of these countries' legal systems are founded on the common law system. - 
  • Because of the diversity of their population groups, both countries have experienced legal challenges regarding citizenship. Asian diversity is linked to democracy, and a democratic state is required to ensure that all residents are treated equally. 

Hence, the research compares the legal discourse of both countries to see if it adequately supports Kymlicka's idea of "multiculturalism" as envisioned in his theories and also provides some suggestions for the citizenship laws for Nepal.

Researcher: S. Dalvi / India

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 05 July '21 - 4 Jan '22

SECURITY POLICY OF NEPAL ON TERRITORIAL DISPUTES WITH INDIA (J. Ohare / USA)

I am looking into radical Islam spilling over into South Asia from the fall of Afghanistan, and the potential security risk it poses to Nepal, and how the country could become a safe haven for terrorist organizations. Nepal last terror attack was on December 31st, 2019, to telecommunications infrastructure. No one was harmed or injured in the attack. There is a group under the radar to some intelligence agencies, called Islami Sangh Nepal (ISN). They are under the assumption that they provide safety to Indian terrorists. The group is said to have ties to a Turkish NGO called IHH. They have recently helped 350 families that were affected by the floods in Nepal, but have ties to Al Qaeda and the Muslim Brotherhood. 

Back in 2016 the Russian ambassador to the UN informed the United Nations Security Council, that the NGO was supplying weapons to extremist groups in Syria. Afghans maybe smuggled into South Asian countries and have the potential to become radicalized, or individuals may try and influence citizens in South Asia to become radicalized, and carry out attacks. Cells may come into Nepal keeping a low profile but cross borders to carry out attacks or call in attacks with the country. I will analyze this further and see how to prevent this from happening, and the likelihood of this coming to light. 

Researcher:J. Ohare / USA

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 05 July '21 - 4 Jan '22

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS OF KENYA AND NEPAL (F. Cavazzuti / Italy)

Investment in education is at the core of every government strategy, as it represents an essential component in fostering the socioeconomic growth of a country. Indeed, it is fundamental to strengthen the current educational system and ensure that all children of school age have access to primary and secondary education, as well as to invest in resources to increase enrollment and attendance at university. Both Nepal and Kenya, despite being distant in geographical, cultural, and linguistic terms, have committed themselves to achieving such significant goals. 


This research intends to outline a comparison between the education systems of the two countries in order to identify the similarities and, ultimately, the potential areas of cooperation in this field. While compiling this study, particular attention will be given to the strategies and policies implemented by the Kenyan and Nepalese governments to improve their national education systems; this will allow an assessment of whether the two countries are on track to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. 


The research process will be primarily supported by the consultation of national education plans, which describe in detail the challenges that Nepal and Kenya have to face and the strategies that need to be implemented in order to ensure positive development and favorable results. Furthermore, the existing literature on the two countries’ education systems will be considered as a valuable source of data and analysis. 

Ultimately, this study could serve as a framework for future research on the effectiveness and benefits of educational cooperation as a vehicle for cultural diplomacy. Indeed, future analyses might focus on the comparison between Nepal and Kenya’s strategies in the educational field to evaluate the possibility of exchanging best practices and implementing them within their respective territories, taking into account similarities and differences that might favor or hamper their effective implementation. 

Researcher: F. Cavazzuti / Italy

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 01 Nov '21 - 31 Jan '22

EDUCATIONAL POLICY IN NEPAL (P. K. E. Eastwood / Spain)

At the moment of establishing education policies, a plethora of possibilities arise, which can be seen as opportunities if properly reflected upon. They can be seen as specific courses of action which can -if adequately organised- provide guidelines for decision-makers on how to handle issues regarding Education Policy. Moreover, with a competent plan or organization involved, effective education procedures can help to eliminate misunderstandings that may arise between the day-to-day operations of an education system, and the country’s vision of education.


Educational opportunities have been organised in an uneven manner regarding genders, income groups, geographies, and other inequalities all throughout history.

Thus, the present study deals with how the unevenly developed South Asian nation of Nepal has been handling the complex structural challenges of delivering quality education to its population of 29.14 million people for myriads of years. The major concern of the study is how these inequalities have further increased due to COVID-19, what is happening now? 

Researcher: P. K. E. Eastwood / Spain

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 01 June '21 - 11 Dec '21

THE HUMANITARIAN POLICY OF NEPAL IN DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT (D. V. Aranda / Spain)

This research project on the Humanitarian Policy of Nepal in the matter of Disaster Risk Reduction and Management has been developed with the aim to analyze the current situation of this policy in the country and the impacts that it has in the political, economic and social sphere of the country. Furthermore, throughout the different sections, recommendations are provided as to improve the implementation of these policies. 


The project starts with an overall background of Nepal and is then followed by the study and analysis of policies and acts on Natural Disaster Management at Federal, Provincial and Local government level. In this sense, it has also been analyzed the National Risk Plan and Action Strategy 2017-2030 as to observe the downsides on its implementation and consequently provide recommendations and suggestions to foster the effectiveness of such an important strategy for the matter of DRR and DRM. 


As to adapt an economic perspective as well and see how the financing of DRM is being carried out, the public and private sector financing at national level have been studied as well as the funding received from international organizations. 


In addition, as DRR and DRM are not just the competence of the Government Organisms and Institutions but also the one of Non-governmental Organizations, there is a section providing an explanation of the main National and International Organizations involved in Disaster Management in Nepal. In this sense, the main actions of organizations such as Nepal Red Cross Society or the United Nations have been described and the key learnings have been extracted to help the country and its government in their way to strengthen their capacities and policies in DRR and DRM. 


Social impacts emerging from the current implementation and management of DRR and DRM policies and plans of action, such as poverty and food insecurity, are also analyzed. 

The project is concluded by providing an overview recognizing the progress in DRR and DRM in Nepal while also providing general recommendations if the required further improvement is to be achieved. 

Researcher: D. V. Aranda / Spain

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 01 June '21 - 11 Dec '21

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CITIZENSHIP LEGISLATION IN POLAND AND NEPAL - CITIZENSHIP LAW ANALYSYS (Z. Samson / Poland)

Citizenship is the most important bond connecting an individual with a state. It is a crucial legal guarantor of access to various public institutions as well as the basic human rights of an individual. This paper examines the citizenship laws in Poland and Nepal, providing a comparison of the two systems and laws implemented in the late 1990s and early 2000s respectively in each country. It reveals their considerably strict and demanding scope – a person applying for citizenship in both countries has to present close ties with their societies and culture. There are also numerous obstacles in accessing citizenship, relating to ethnic or gender issues and the broader problem of statelessness. 


Therefore, the particular focus of this paper is put on the limitations in accessing citizenship in both countries. Not having citizenship poses numerous problems, including the lack of access to public institutions, like schools or hospitals, social exclusion, and the risk of statelessness. Without citizenship, people are unable to enjoy their fundamental human rights. 


In the case of Poland, improvements could be adopted by implementing the provisions of international conventions relating to statelessness in the national legislation. Persisting xenophobic attitudes within the society may also contribute to voting for conservative, anti-immigrant political parties, which impedes foreigners from legally inhabiting the country. 


In the case of Nepal, implementing provisions of international conventions guaranteeing gender equality could help improve the situation, just as stronger protection of ethnic or racial minorities could at least limit the scale of the problem of statelessness in Nepal. Addressing the patriarchal structure of the society could, however, be fundamental for both issues. 

It is believed that a thorough analysis of the two legislations presented in this paper might be motivating for reforms and improvements so that citizenship laws in these countries become more inclusive and fair.

Researcher: Z. Samson / Poland

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 05 Aug '21 - 04 Dec '21

STUCK BETWEEN GIANTS: COMPARING THE GRAND STRATEGIES OF NEPAL LAND BHUTAN (G. W. Turner / USA)

Nepal and Bhutan are both small Himalayan nations stuck between two nuclear giants that are actively competing against each other, namely India and China. While Nepal and Bhutan have many differences culturally and politically, they also have much overlap. By examining how each defines and balances their national interests while also navigating their existence on a fault line of great power competition, this paper hopes to identify and elucidate these two nations' grand strategies. In doing so, it is hoped that a.) Lessons are uncovered which both Nepal and Bhutan may benefit from, b.) Lessons are uncovered which other nations under similar geopolitical constraints may learn from, and c.) That the global community may better understand the situation Nepal and Bhutan face, and what policy implications may exist as a result of their positions and strategies.  

 

The first part of paper will outline the geopolitical contexts of Nepal and Bhutan, with a particular focus on their relationships with each other, India, China, Russia, more distant powers such as the U.K. and Japan, and transnational organizations such the Asian Development Bank. The second part will define grand strategy and then outline and contrast what Nepal and Bhutan’s grand strategies are. The third part of the paper will examine what, if any, lessons Nepal or Bhutan may learn from each other regarding their grand strategies and relationships with China and India. 

The fourth part of the paper will seek to identify lessons that other nations locked between large powers may learn from Nepal and Bhutan. The final part of the paper will state any policy implications or recommendations that may be uncovered, and summarize likely geopolitical trends that may result from the two nations’ strategies and positions. 

Researcher: G. W. Turner M.A / USA

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Progress

Grant Period: 02 Aug '21 - 01 Feb '22

POLICY RECCOMENDATIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE PUBLIC ROAD TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN KATHMANDU VALLEY, NEPAL (V. Shorava / Italy)

Nepal is experiencing accelerated economic growth for which transport development is a must. In Kathmandu Valley, which is central to all economic activities in Nepal, the public bus service is unregulated, concentrated in the metropolitan area and operated by mostly private providers. Because of limited road spaces in the Valley and the growth of private vehicles, urban mobility is worsening day by day. Above it, the region experiences deteriorating air quality and people suffer from consequent health issues. 


With an objective to provide a valuable contribution to the policymakers, this paper, first, identifies the urgent need for an intervention in the transportation system; second, discusses the main characteristics of the public road transport system in Kathmandu Valley, recognizing its main challenge - inaccessibility; and finally, suggests three important strategies that would drive the road transport system in Kathmandu Valley towards a sustainable path: rural routes franchising, urban areas tendering, and para transit. 


Rural routes franchising has a potential to reduce reliance on private vehicles and ensure quality of public service by connecting the rural areas of the Valley to the centre of the economic activity. Urban areas tendering can complement the first measure by bringing forward a network of reliable public road transport system by imposing competition on the operators. Paratransit can fill the gaps in formal transit provision while safeguarding employment during the process of adjustment. Together the three measures would decrease passengers’ dependency on private vehicles and reduce congestion and air pollution. 


The integrated system regulated by government would ensure equal access to the economic activities to all citizens, opening up prospects for inclusive development. This paper also suggests an area for future research – assessing the capability of the government of Nepal to implement the measures and evaluating the positive and negative impacts these measures can induce.

Researcher: V. Sherova / Italy

Type of Research: V.R. Internship

Research Advisor: Er. Dipendra Kandel

Research Supervisor: YTAP

Research Status: In Review

Grant Period: 19 May '21 - 18 Dec '21