Dipendra Kandel Initiative

Education Policy

As an organization committed to better the lives of individuals, the DKI focuses on education research and recommends policies to upgrade the education system, aiming for long-term economic and social benefits.

Education Research focuses on: Education Universalization, educational System (Kindergarten, Elementary School, High School, University, Postgraduate education…), continued education, teaching infrastructure, teaching administration (bureaucracy, class size…), public education, private education, teacher recruitment and retention, teacher education, teaching methods, curricular content, education values…

Pre-University Education
Technical & Vocational Education and Training
Higher Education
Pre-University Education

Educational Enabling Environment

Expenditure on Education

Government expenditure, primary (% of GDP)

Government expenditure, secondary (% of GDP)

Expenditure on educational institutions, all levels (%)

Early Childhood Education

Gross enrollment ratio, ECE (%)

Grade 1 entrants with ECE (%)

School Environment

Pupil-teacher ration, primary (HC)

Pupil-teacher ration, secondary (HC)

Trained teachers,  primary (%)

Trained teachers, secondary (%)

Knowledge Capital


Gross enrollment ratio, primary (%)

Gross enrollment ratio, upper secondary (%)

Out-of-school children (%)


Gross graduation ratio, primary (%)

Gross graduation ratio, upper secondary (%)

Survival rate, last grade of lower secondary (%)


Assessment of 15-year-old students

Assessment of 8th grade students

Technical & Vocational Education and Training

Formation and Professional Training

Continuous Training

Extent of staff training 

Availability of research and training services

Firms offering formal training (%)

Educational Structure

Expenditure on non-tertiary vocational education

Enrollment in vocational programmes, secondary (%) 

Enrollment in vocational programmes, post secondary  non-tertiary (%)

Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary vocational (HC)

Features of the Labor Market

Qualifications of Human Capital

Poor work ethic in the labor force

Ease of finding skilled employees

Technicians per thousand labor force (HC)

Structure of the Labor Market

Restrictive labor regulations

Labor freedom

Higher Education

Higher Education Outputs & Quality


Graduates, ISCED 6 (%)

Graduates, ISCED 7 (%)

Graduates, ISCED 8 (%)

Employment After Graduation

Labor force with advanced education (%)

Unemployment with advanced education (%)

Quality of Universities

University-industry collaboration in R&D

Globally-ranked universities

Competency of Students

Enrollment in globally-ranked universities 9% of tertiary students)

Inbound mobility rate (%)

Higher Education Inputs


Government expenditure, tertiary (% of GDP)

Government expenditure per student, tertiary (constant PPP$)


Enrollment in tertiary education, ISCED 6 (%)

Enrollment in tertiary education, ISCED 7 (%)

Enrollment in tertiary education, ISCED 8 (%)

Human Resources

Pupil-teacher ratio, tertiary (HC)

Researchers in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%) in higher education (%)